(e) William, J. O’Brian; Kalpana Gupta; Kamal M. F. Itani (2019)
At any given point during the follow-up period, patients with 30-day postoperative infection had a 3.2-fold higher risk of 1-year infection and a 1.9-fold higher risk of mortality compared with those who had no 30-day infection. Cost-benefit calculations for surgical infection prevention programs should include the increased risk and costs of long-term infection and death. Preventive efforts in the first 30 days postoperatively may improve long-term patient outcomes.
(d) Sveriges kommuner och landsting. (2017)
65 000 patients each year suffer from hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in Sweden, and HAI is the most common and expensive type of event that causes injury to patients. It leads to a prolonged length of stay that costs 6.5 billion SEK each year. The length stay increases with ten extra days on average. Estimations show that between a third to half of these could be avoided. The most common HAI is urinary tract infection followed by postoperative wound infection.
(c) American College of Surgeons and Surgical Infection Society (2016)
SSIs accounts for 20% of all hospital-acquired infections in the US and are reported as the most common and costly of all hospital-acquired infections. The incidence of SSI is 2% to 5% in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. The estimated annual incidence varies widely and ranges from 160,000 to 300,000 in the US although this is likely to represent an underestimation due to the surveillance challenges after discharge. The cost for surgical site infections are mainly associated with extended length of stay, emergency department visits and read-missions. The annual cost of SSI in the US is estimated at $3.5 to $10 billion in this report.
(b) Burman, L. G. (2006)
The previously mention report from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, see 7b, states that the cost of care is increased by nosocomial infections. Patients that are victims to nosocomial infections, which lead to an extended length of stay, spend 500 000 days extra in hospital each year. This consequently leads to increased costs of 3700 million SEK corresponding to e 388 million annually, according to an estimation by the authors.
(a) Leaper, D. J., Van Goor, H., Reilly, J., Petrosillo, N., Geiss, H. K., Torres, A. J. & Berger, A. (2004)
This study reviewed data from 48 studies and estimated the economic costs of surgical site infections in Europe to range between e 1.47–19.1 billion. Furthermore, the review suggests that the economic burden is likely to have been underestimated since the infection rate reported is believed to represent an underestimation.
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