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(c) Wang. C (2019)

Ventilation performance in operating rooms: A numerical assessment, Doctoral Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Ultra-clean air is not only a result of high airflow rates – the type of airflow distribution is of critical importance in reducing cfu levels and different ventilation techniques have very different ventilation efficiency. The highest efficiency was shown by Temperature Controlled Airflow (TcAF).

(b) Nielsen, P. V. (2009)

Control of airborne infectious diseases in ventilated spaces. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 6(6), 747-755.

Experiments with heated manikins indicate that downward air velocities up to 0.25 m/s preserves isothermal smoke released from above the standing manikin at head height. The thermal plume above a person has an upward velocity of approximately 0.25 m/s and down- ward air velocities of at least 0.30 m/s are needed to break the body convection.

(a) Whyte, W., Shaw, B. H. & Barnes, R. (1973)

A bacteriological evaluation of laminar-flow systems for orthopaedic surgery. Epidemiolog y & Infection, 71(3), 559-564.

In 1973 Whyte et al investigated the efficiency of unidirectional air-flow in operating theaters where both horizontal and vertical flow were evaluated. Conventional surgical clothing was used and the investigation concluded that vertical airflow velocities in the region 0.3-0.4 m/s is enough to keep the mean value of airborne bacterial counts measured at the wound site below the limit for ultraclean surgery. Furthermore, it was concluded that the vertical airflow was about 11 times more efficient regarding airborne bacteria count than horizontal.

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An extensive list of all scientific literature – in total 45 pieces – that supports Opragon is available on request using the download button below.

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