(c) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013)
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates in their report from 2013 that there are about 2 million people who become infected by bacteria or fungus that are resistant to antibiotics and 23000 deaths resulting from these infections each year in the United States. The estimation is reported to represent a minimum. When antibiotic resistance grows, the ability to fight routine infectious diseases is weakened and it will also impair treatment of infections complications in patients with other diseases. Many of the modern advances in medicine are dependent on the effectiveness of antibiotics to fight infections. For example, patients that undergo complex surgery such as cardiac bypass or joint replacement are subjected to the risk of SSIs. Prophylactic antibiotics is often used to prevent such infections but if the effectiveness of antibiotics is lost, so is the advantage of these modern medical advances.
(b) World Health Organization. (2016)
WHO informs in their fact sheet from 2016 that antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally which threat the ability to treat common infectious diseases. Resistance is enhanced by poor infection prevention and control, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. WHO points out that without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era in which common infections and minor injuries can pose a deadly threat. Organ transplantation, chemotherapy and major surgical procedures such as caesarean sections or hip replacement will become much more dangerous without effective antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections.
(a) World Health Organization (2014).
Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. WHO establishes that this is an increasingly serious threat to global public health, development and food security that requires action across all government sectors and society. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance leads to higher medical costs, longer hospital stays as well as increased mortality. The report states that measures can be taken at all levels in society to limit the impact and spread of antimicrobial resistance and that global surveillance generating reliable data is urgently needed.In all WHO regions, very high resistance rates have been observed for common bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, that cause common nosocomial and community-acquired infections.
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